Using concrete but age-appropriate materials with adult learners enhances instruction by providing a context for language and literacy development. A basic kit of materials might consist of the following objects, games, and materials.

  • realia: clocks, food items, calendars, plastic fruits and vegetables, maps, household objects, real and play money, food containers, abacus, manual for learning to drive, and classroom objects;
  • flash cards: pictures, words, and signs;
  • pictures or photographs: personal, magazine, and others;
  • recorder and CDs, including music for imagery and relaxation;
  • overhead projector;
  • DVD-player and videos;
  • camera for language experience stories—to create biographies and autobiographies;
  • games such as bingo and concentration: commercial or teacher-made;
  • colored index cards to teach word order in sentences, to show when speakers change in dialogue, to illustrate question/answer format, and to use as cues for a concentration game;
  • cuisenaire rods to teach word order in sentences, to use as manipulatives in dyad activities;
  • colored markers to teach word order, to differentiate between speakers in a dialogue, and to illustrate question and answer format;
  • poster, butcher, and construction paper;
  • colored pencils, and crayons;
  • scissors, glue, and masking tape.